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Sabtu, 09 Oktober 2010

Standar ASTM Untuk Analisis Batubara

Pada evaluasi atau pengukuran suatu besaran, terdapat beberapa prosedur yang harus dilakukan dengan benar supaya hasilnya dapat dipertanggungjawabkan.

Prosedur – prosedur itu sendiri akan mengikuti salah satu standar baku yang ditetapkan oleh suatu badan atau otoritas tertentu, misalnya ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials), JIS (Japan Industrial Standards), BS (British Standard),  DIN (Jerman), atau SNI (Standar Nasional Indonesia).



Pada analisis batubara termasuk sampling di dalamnya, standar yang umumnya digunakan adalah ASTM. Silakan unduh di sini untuk mendapatkan file-nya.

Dokumen – dokumen yang terdapat dalam file tersebut adalah:
  1. D121: Standard Terminology of Coal and Coke.
  2. D167: Standard Test Method for Apparent and True Specific Gravity and Porosity of  Lump Coke.
  3. D197: Standard Test Method for Sampling and Fineness Test of Pulverized Coal.
  4. D291: Standard Test Method for Cubic Foot Weight of Crushed Bituminous Coal.
  5. D293: Standard Test Method for the Sieve Analysis of Coke.
  6. D346: Standard Practice for Collection and Preparation of Coke Samples for Laboratory Analysis.
  7. D388: Standard Classification of Coals by Rank.
  8. D409: Standard Test Method for Grindability of Coal by the Hardgrove-Machine Method.
  9. D440: Standard Test Method of Drop Shatter Test for Coal.
  10. D441: Standard Test Method of Tumbler Test for Coal.
  11. D720: Standard Test Method for Free-Swelling Index of Coal.
  12. D1412: Standard Test Method for Equilibrium Moisture of Coal at 96 to 97 Percent Relative Humidity and 30 deg Celcius.
  13. D1756: Standard Test Method for Determination as Carbon Dioxide of Carbonate Carbon in Coal.
  14. D1757: Standard Test Method for Sulfate Sulfur in Ash from Coal and Coke.
  15. D1857: Standard Test Method for Fusibility of Coal and Coke Ash.
  16. D2013: Standard Practice for Preparing Coal Samples for Analysis.
  17. D2014: Standard Test Method for Expansion or Contraction of Coal by the Sole-Heated Oven.
  18. D2234/D2234M: Standard Practice for Collection of a Gross Sample of Coal.
  19. D2361: Standard Test Method for Chlorine in Coal.
  20. D2492: Standard Test Method for Forms of Sulfur in Coal.
  21. D2639: Standard Test Method for Plastic Properties of Coal by the Constant-Torque Gieseler Plastometer.
  22. D2797: Standard Practice for Preparing Coal Samples for Microscopical Analysis by Reflected Light.
  23. D2798: Standard Test Method for Microscopical Determination of the Reflectance of Vitrinite in a Polished Specimen of Coal.
  24. D2799: Standard Test Method for Microscopical Determination of Volume Percent of Physical Components of Coal.
  25. D2961: Standard Test Method for Single-Stage Total Moisture Less than 15% in Coal Reduced to 2.36mm.
  26. D3038: Standard Test Method for Drop Shatter Test for Coke.
  27. D3172: Standard Practice for Proximate Analysis of Coal and Coke.
  28. D3173: Standard Test Method for Moisture in the Analysis Sample of Coal and Coke.
  29. D3174: Standard Test Method for Ash in the Analysis Sample of Coal and Coke from Coal.
  30. D3175: Standard Test Method for Volatile Matter in the Analysis Sample of Coal and Coke.
  31. D3176: Standard Practice for Ultimate Analysis of Coal and Coke.
  32. D3177: Standard Test Method for Total Sulfur in the Analysis Sample of Coal and Coke.
  33. D3178: Standard Test Method for Carbon and Hydrogen in the Analysis Sample of Coal and Coke.
  34. D3179: Standard Test Method for Nitrogen in the Analysis Sample of Coal and Coke.
  35. D3180: Standard Practice for Calculating Coal and Coke Analyses from As-Determined to Different Basis.
  36. D3302: Standard Test Method for Total Moisture in Coal.
  37. D3402: Standard Test Method for Tumbler Test for Coke.
  38. D3682: Standard Test Method for Major and Minor Elements in Combustion Residues from Coal Utilization Processes.
  39. D3683: Standard Test Method for Trace Elements in Coal and Coke Ash by Atomic Absorption.
  40. D3684: Standard Test Method for Total Mercury in Coal by the Oxygen Bomb Combustion/Atomic Absorption Method.
  41. D3761:Standard Test Method for Total Fluorine in Coal by the Oxygen Bomb Combustion/Ion Selective Electrode Method.
  42. D3997: Standard Practice for Preparing Coke Samples for Microscopical Analysis by Reflected Light.
  43. D4182: Standard Practice for Evaluation of Laboratories Using ASTM Procedures in the Sampling and Analysis of Coal and Coke.
  44. D4208: Standard Test Method for Total Chlorine in Coal by the Oxygen Bomb Combustion/Ion Selective Electrode Method.
  45. D4239: Standard Test Methods for Sulfur in the Analysis Sample of Coal and Coke Using High-Temperature Tube Furnace Combustion Method.
  46. D4326: Standard Test Method for Major and Minor Elements in Coal and Coke Ash by X-Ray Fluorescence.
  47. D4371: Standard Test Method for Determining the Washability Characteristics of Coal.
  48. D4596: Standard Practice for Collection of Channel Samples of Coal in a Mine.
  49. D4606: Standard Test Method for Determination of Arsenic and Selenium in Coal by the Hydride Generation/Atomic Absorption Method.
  50. D4621: Standard Guide for Quality Management in an Organization That Samples or Tests Coal and Coke.
  51. D4702: Standard Guide for Inspecting Crosscut, Sweep-Arm, and Auger Mechanical Coal-Sampling Systems for Conformance with Current ASTM Standards.
  52. D4749: Standards Test Method for Performing the Sieve Analysis of Coal and Designating Coal Size.
  53. D4915: Standard Guide for Manual Sampling of Coal from Tops of Railroad Cars.
  54. D5016: Standard Test Method for Sulfur in Ash from Coal, Coke, and Residues from Coal Combustion Using High-Temperature Tube Furnace Combustion Method with Infrared Absorption.
  55. D5061: Standard Test Method for Microscopical Determination of Volume Percent of Textural Components in Metallurgical Coke.
  56. D5114: Standard Test Method for Laboratory Froth Floatation of Coal in a Mechanical Cell.
  57. D5142: Standard Test Method for Proximate Analysis of the Analysis Sample of Coal and Coke by Instrumental Procedures.
  58. D5192: Standard Practice for Collection of Coal Samples from Core.
  59. D5263: Standard Test Method for Determining the Relative Degree of Oxidation in Bituminous Coal by Alkali Extraction.
  60. D5341: Standard Test Method for Measuring Coke Reactivity Index (CRI) and Coke Strength After Reaction (CSR).
  61. D5373: Standard Test Methods for Instrumental Determination of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen in Laboratory Samples of Coal and Coke.
  62. D5515: Standard Test Method for Determination of the Swelling Properties of Bituminous Coal Using a Dilatometer.
  63. D5671: Standard Practice for Polishing and Etching Coal Samples for Microscopical Analysis by Reflected Light.
  64. D5865: Standard Test Method for Gross Calorific Value of Coal and Coke.
  65. D5987: Standard Test Method for Total Fluorine in Coal and Coke by Pyrohydrolytic Extraction and Ion Selective Electrode or Ion Chromatograph Methods.
  66. D6315: Standard Practice for Manual Sampling of Coal from Tops of Barges.
  67. D6316: Standard Test Method for Determination of Total, Combustible and Carbonate Carbon in Solid Residues from Coal and Coke.
  68. D6347/D6347M: Standard Test Method for Determination of Bulk Density of Coal Using Nuclear Backscatter Depth Density Methods.
  69. D6349: Standard Test Method for Determination of Major and Minor Elements in Coal, Coke, and Solid Residues from Combustion of Coal and Coke by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry.
  70. D6357: Standard Test Method for Determination of Trace Elements in Coal, Coke, and Combustion Residues from Coal Utilization Processes by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry, Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Mass Spectrometry, and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.
  71. D6414: Standard Test Method for Total Mercury in Coal and Coal Combustion Residues by Acid Extraction or Wet Oxidation/Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption.
  72. D6518: Standard Practice for Bias Testing a Mechanical Coal Sampling System.
  73. D6542: Standard Practice for Tonnage Calculation of Coal in a Stockpile.
  74. D6543: Standard Guide to the Evaluation of Measurements Made by On-Line Coal Analyzers.
  75. D6609: Standard Guide for Part-Streaming Sampling of Coal.
  76. D6610: Standard Practice for Manually Sampling Coal from Surfaces of a Stockpile.
  77. D6721: Standard Test Method for Determination of Chlorine in Coal by Oxidative Hydrolysis Microcoulometry.
  78. D6722: Standard Testing Method for Total Mercury in Coal and Coal Combustion Residues by Direct Combustion Analysis.
  79. D6796: Standard Practice for Production of Coal, Coke, and Coal Combustion Samples for Interlaboratory Studies.
  80. D6883: Standard Practice for Manual Sampling of Stationary Coal from Railroad Cars, Barges, Trucks, or Stockpiles.

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